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DEX Walkthrough


If you are building a project that involves decentralized exchange functionality, integrating DEX contracts can be a crucial step in achieving your goals. These contracts provide the underlying infrastructure necessary to facilitate the exchange of assets on a decentralized platform. However, implementing these contracts can be a complex process, and understanding the various public endpoints and functions can be challenging. In this in-depth walkthrough, we will guide you through the process of integrating DEX contracts into your MultiversX project. We will cover all of the main contracts involved in a typical DEX implementation, and provide detailed explanations of the most commonly used public endpoints. By the end of this tutorial, you should have a solid understanding of how to implement DEX functionality in your own project, and be able to make informed decisions about how to customize and extend the functionality to meet your specific needs.


The DEX contracts are a bit more advanced than the standard SCs, so basic knowledge about Rust SC development is required. If you are a beginner, an easier starting point (like the Crowdfunding SC or the Staking SC tutorials) is strongly advised. Also, to better grasp the DEX contracts implementation, it is important that you first understand the xExchange economic model.


You can find the xExchange whitepaper here:

DEX repo structure & recommendations

The main DEX contracts are as follow:

  • Pair SC
  • Router SC
  • Farm SC
  • Proxy DEX SC
  • Farm Staking SC
  • Farm Staking Proxy SC
  • Simple Lock SC
  • Energy Factory SC
  • Token Unstake SC
  • Fees Collector SC
  • Locked Token Wrapper SC

You can find the repository containing all the DEX contracts here:

This walkthough was made based on a synchronous, intrashard contract calls flow as the suggested implementation. While you can still use async calls, that approach would complicate the implementation of any new projects building on top of the DEX contracts to some extent, with more complex gas handling requirements and callbacks logic. In order to have synchronous integration with the DEX contracts, the newly developed SCs need to be deployed on the same shard as the xExchange contracts.

Later on, with the launch of the AsyncV2 functionality, these kinds of contracts will be able to be deployed in other shards as well, as the protocol will support multiple asyncCalls.


You can find an in-depth overview of SC interactions here:

Pair SC

This contract allows users to provide liquidity and to swap tokens. Users are incentivized to add liquidity by earning rewards from fees and by being able to enter farms, thus earning even more rewards. This contract is usually deployed by the router smart contract and it (usually) has no dependency, as it is used as a DeFi primitive.

Add liquidity

    pub type AddLiquidityResultType<BigUint> =
MultiValue3<EsdtTokenPayment<BigUint>, EsdtTokenPayment<BigUint>, EsdtTokenPayment<BigUint>>;

fn add_liquidity(
first_token_amount_min: BigUint,
second_token_amount_min: BigUint,
) -> AddLiquidityResultType<Self::Api>

The process of adding liquidity to a pool is a straightforward one and does not affect the ratio between the two tokens. Let's assume that the reserves of the first and second tokens are denoted by rA and rB respectively, while the desired amounts of those tokens to be added as liquidity are denoted by aA and aB. In order to maintain the ratio of the tokens in the liquidity pool, the following formula must hold true: rA / rB = aA / aB. Calculating the appropriate values is easy since one of the desired values, aA or aB, can be fixed, and the other one can be derived from the aforementioned formula.

For newly deployed pairs, the first liquidity addition sets the ratio and price of the tokens since there are no tokens in the pool yet, and thus no formula to be followed.

When the add liquidity function is called, it takes an array of two payments that correspond to the amounts the user wants to add to the liquidity pool. The order of the payments is important, as they must correspond to the order of the tokens in the contract. The function also takes in two arguments, first_token_amount_min and second_token_amount_min, which represent the desired slippage, or the minimum amount of tokens that must be returned by the contract.

After all necessary checks and computations are done, the endpoint returns a vector of 3 payments to the user in the following order: liquidity added, the difference between the first token amount sent by the user and the amount that was used, and the difference between the second token amount sent by the user and the amount that was used. A MultiValue of these 3 EsdtTokenPayment is returned as the final result.

Remove liquidity

    pub type RemoveLiquidityResultType<BigUint> =
MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<BigUint>, EsdtTokenPayment<BigUint>>;

fn remove_liquidity(
first_token_amount_min: BigUint,
second_token_amount_min: BigUint,
) -> RemoveLiquidityResultType<Self::Api>

The removal of liquidity from a pool is a process that can be thought of as the reverse of adding liquidity. It involves a liquidity provider sending their LP tokens back to the Pair SC and providing the same parameters that were presented in the addLiquidity endpoint, namely the first_token_amount_min and second_token_amount_min. In exchange, the provider receives back both types of tokens that he initially provided. Typically, for a pool that is relatively stable, the amounts received when removing liquidity will be greater than the amounts provided initially during the addition process, as they will include the accumulated swap fees.

After all the checks and computations are done, the endpoint constructs and sends back to the user a vector of 2 payments with the following amounts: first_token_amount_removed and second_token_amount_removed. In the end, a MultiValue of 2 EsdtTokenPayment is returned.

Swap tokens fixed input

    pub type SwapTokensFixedInputResultType<BigUint> = EsdtTokenPayment<BigUint>;

fn swap_tokens_fixed_input(
token_out: TokenIdentifier,
amount_out_min: BigUint,
) -> SwapTokensFixedInputResultType<Self::Api>

This smart contract acts as an AMM based on the constant product formula x * y = k. This means that swapping, when ignoring fees, would happen based on the following logic:

Let's assume that:

  • rI is the reserve of the input token (the one that the user paid)
  • rO is the reserve of the output token (the one that the user desires in exchange of the paid one)
  • aI is the amount of the input token
  • aO is the amount of the output token
rI * rO = k
(rI + aI) * (rO - aO) = k

From the two equations, we can safely state that

rI * rO = (rI + aI) * (rO - aO)

Where aI would be known, and aO would need to be calculated.

Considering f being the percent of total fee, the formula including fees is the following:

rI * rO = (rI + (1 - f) * aI) * (rO - aO)

The workflow of the endpoint is as follows: the users sends a payment with the tokens he wants to swap to the contract, along with 2 parameters (token_out and amount_out_min). Based on the token_out parameter, the swapping order is deducted, the variables are checked and then the contract performs the swap operation as described above.

In the end, the user receives back his requested tokens, with one important mention. If one of the pair tokens is an underlying version of a locked token, then the output token is locked before it is sent to the user. Finally, the endpoints returns the EsdtTokenPayment, containing the output token payment.

Swap tokens fixed output

    pub type SwapTokensFixedOutputResultType<BigUint> =
MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<BigUint>, EsdtTokenPayment<BigUint>>;

fn swap_tokens_fixed_output(
token_out: TokenIdentifier,
amount_out: BigUint,
) -> SwapTokensFixedOutputResultType<Self::Api>

The flow is approximately the same as with the SwapFixedInput function, with the main difference that aO is fixed and aI is calculated using the same formulas. One other difference is that besides the desired tokens, the contract also sends back the leftover tokens, in case there are any. The leftover amount in this case is the difference between the amount_in_max and the actual amount that was used to swap in order to get to the desired amount_out. In the end, the endpoint returns a MultiValue of 2 EsdtTokenPayment.

Router SC

The Router SC serves as a convenient tool for efficiently managing and monitoring Pair contracts in a decentralized environment. It enables the deployer to easily keep track of the existing Pair contracts and offers a wide array of settings functions, that makes the manangement of the liquidity pools much more easier.

Taking into consideration that this tutorial is intended for developers who wish to import more easily the DEX contracts into their own projects, we will concentrate on the only public endpoint that can be particularly beneficial for external projects, the multiPairSwap endpoint.

Multi pair swap

    type SwapOperationType<M> =
MultiValue4<ManagedAddress<M>, ManagedBuffer<M>, TokenIdentifier<M>, BigUint<M>>;

fn multi_pair_swap(&self, swap_operations: MultiValueEncoded<SwapOperationType<Self::Api>>)

The multiPairSwap endpoint allows users to swap two different tokens, that don't have a direct pool, in one transaction. It receives an array (of type MultiValueEncoded) of SwapOperationType (which are basically a MultiValue of 4 different parameters). The 4 parameters are (in this exact order): pair_address, function, token_wanted, amount_wanted. So, for each SwapOperationType, the flow is as follows:

  • The endpoint checks if the pair_address is indeed a pair contract, in order to be able to call the swap function.
  • It then calls the specified function (which can be of type swap_tokens_fixed_input or swap_tokens_fixed_output), by sending the tokens received as a payment in the endpoint, in return of the token_wanted, with the specified amount_wanted.
  • A PaymentsVec is then created, consisting in the desired token (the last token from the swap_operations list), along with all the remaining tokens that were not used during the swap operations.
  • In case the entire flow works as intended, the PaymentsVec is then sent back to the user.

Farm SC

This base farm contract has the role of generating and distributing MEX tokens to liquidity providers that choose to lock their LP tokens, thus increasing the ecosystem stability. On the xExchange, a variation of the Farm contract is deployed, namely the Farm with locked rewards contract, which heavily relies on the standard Farm contract, the difference being that the generated rewards are locked (which also involves an additional energy computation step, according to the new xExchange economics model).

Throughout the Farm SC we will come across an optional variable, namely opt_orig_caller. When building an external SC on top of the xExchange farm contract, this argument must always be sent as None (it is used by the other whitelisted xExchange contracts to claim rewards and compute energy for another user, other that the caller - in our case the external xExchange contract). With the new update of the MEX economics model (where SCs are allowed to have energy), the account that now has and uses the Energy can be the external SC itself, which later computes any existing rewards for its users or applies any other custom logic (e.g. like the Energy DAO SC) to further distribute those rewards.

Enter farm

    pub type EnterFarmResultType<M> = DoubleMultiPayment<M>;

fn enter_farm_endpoint(
opt_orig_caller: OptionalValue<ManagedAddress>,
) -> EnterFarmResultType<Self::Api>

This endpoint receives at least one payment:

  • The first payment has to be of type farming_token_id, and represents the actual token that is meant to be locked inside the Farm contract.
  • The additional payments, if any, will be current farm positions and will be merged with the newly created tokens, in order to consolidate all previous positions with the current one.

This endpoint will give back to the caller a Farm position as a result. This is a MetaESDT that contains, in its attributes, information about the user input tokens and the current state of the contract when the user did enter. This information will be later used when trying to claim rewards or exit farm.

Claim rewards

    pub type ClaimRewardsResultType<M> = DoubleMultiPayment<M>;

fn claim_rewards_endpoint(
opt_orig_caller: OptionalValue<ManagedAddress>,
) -> ClaimRewardsResultType<Self::Api>

When a user makes a call to this endpoint, they must provide their current farm position (or positions). The endpoint will then use this position to compute the rewards that the user has earned. The rewards that are calculated will depend on each specific farm. Some farms may offer both base rewards and boosted rewards, with the latter being calculated only once every 7 epochs. Other farms may offer only base rewards. In the end, the function will return two pieces of information: the updated farm position (which will now include the latest RPS information) and the amount of rewards that the user has earned.

Exit farm

    pub type ExitFarmWithPartialPosResultType<M> =
MultiValue3<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn exit_farm_endpoint(
exit_amount: BigUint,
opt_orig_caller: OptionalValue<ManagedAddress>,
) -> ExitFarmWithPartialPosResultType<Self::Api>

The exitFarm endpoint allows users to exit their position in the farm. It receives the entire farm position as a payment, and an exit_amount as a parameter, which tells the function with how much tokens the user wants to exit the farm. This logic was implemented in order to be able to compute the complete farm position's boosted rewards, without losing any tokens.

The flows is as follows:

  • The user calls the endpoint with his entire farm position as a single payment and specifies which is the exit amount
  • The endpoint first computes the boosted rewards, if any, and then it exits the farm with the specified amount
  • The energy of the user is updated accordingly (or deleted if the user exited the farm with the entire position)
  • Lastly, the user receives back the initial farming position (usually the LP tokens), the rewards, if any, and the remaining farm position, in case he did not exit the farm with the entire position

Merge farm tokens

fn merge_farm_tokens_endpoint(
opt_orig_caller: OptionalValue<ManagedAddress>,
) -> EsdtTokenPayment<Self::Api>

The mergeFarmTokens endpoint allows users to send multiple farm positions and combine them into one aggregated position. One important aspect here is that in order to be able to merge the farm tokens, the user must have the energy claim progress up-to-date.

Boosted rewards formula

It's worth noting that while not a specific function, the boosted rewards formula is still an important concept to understand when participating in certain farms. This formula is used to maximize the potential boosted rewards that an account can receive.

The formula takes into account several variables, including the amount of tokens that the user has staked in the farm (user_farm_amount), the total amount of tokens staked in the farm (total_farm_amount), the amount of energy that the user has (user_energy_amount), and the total amount of energy contributed to the farm (total_energy). It is important to mention that the weekly values are used. Additionally, certain boost factors are applied to further fine-tune the calculation of rewards. For example, some factors may overemphasize the importance of the user's energy contribution in the rewards calculation.

By understanding this formula, an account holder can determine how much energy they need to have in order to maximize the rewards for their current farm position. Alternatively, they can determine how much energy they need to obtain in order to to achieve a certain level of boosted rewards. This knowledge can be especially valuable for those projects seeking to optimize their yield farming strategies.

    // computed user rewards = total_boosted_rewards *
// (energy_const * user_energy / total_energy + farm_const * user_farm / total_farm) /
// (energy_const + farm_const)
let boosted_rewards_by_energy =
&weekly_reward.amount * &factors.user_rewards_energy_const * energy_amount
/ total_energy;
let boosted_rewards_by_tokens =
&weekly_reward.amount * &factors.user_rewards_farm_const * &self.user_farm_amount
/ &farm_supply_for_week;
let constants_base = &factors.user_rewards_energy_const + &factors.user_rewards_farm_const;
let boosted_reward_amount =
(boosted_rewards_by_energy + boosted_rewards_by_tokens) / constants_base;

// min between base rewards per week and computed rewards
let user_reward = cmp::min(max_rewards, boosted_reward_amount);
if user_reward > 0 {
.update(|amount| *amount -= &user_reward);


Proxy DEX SC

This smart contract offers users with locked MEX the possibility of interacting with the DEX contracts, for operations like adding liquidity or entering farms, as if they had MEX.

Add liquidity proxy

fn add_liquidity_proxy(
pair_address: ManagedAddress,
first_token_amount_min: BigUint,
second_token_amount_min: BigUint,
) -> MultiValueEncoded<EsdtTokenPayment>

The addLiquidityProxy intermediates liquidity adding in a Pair SC as follows:

  • The user must send the tokens in the same order as they are in the Pair contract
  • The user must configure the slippage as he would in the Pair contract

The output payments of this endpoint consists not in the original LP token, but instead in a Wrapped LP token, along with any leftover tokens. The reason for wrapping the LP tokens is that if the user receives them directly, he would have had the possibility of removing the liquidity and thus unlocking his locked MEX.

Remove liquidity proxy

fn remove_liquidity_proxy(
pair_address: ManagedAddress,
first_token_amount_min: BigUint,
second_token_amount_min: BigUint,
) -> MultiValueEncoded<EsdtTokenPayment>

The removeLiquidityProxy endpoint intermediates removing liquidity from a Pair contract as follows: the user sends Wrapped LP tokens and receives the first token and the locked MEX tokens. The address and slippage are configurable as they would be for the Pair SC.

Merge wrapped LP tokens

fn merge_wrapped_lp_tokens_endpoint(&self) -> EsdtTokenPayment

This function merges two or more positions of Wrapped LP tokens (LP positions obtained using locked MEX instead of MEX and this intermediary contract). The same logic as for mergeWrappedFarmTokens is applied.

Enter farm proxy

fn enter_farm_proxy_endpoint(&self, farm_address: ManagedAddress) -> EsdtTokenPayment

The process of entering a Farm contract is facilitated by the Enter Farm Proxy function. This involves the user sending Wrapped LP tokens and receiving Wrapped Farm tokens. The rationale behind using Wrapped Farm tokens is similar to that of Wrapped LP tokens.

It should be noted that the original LP tokens and Farm tokens are kept in the smart contract, which creates Wrapped Tokens. These original tokens will be used by the smart contract to carry out actions on behalf of the user.

Exit farm proxy

    pub type ExitFarmProxyResultType<M> =
MultiValue3<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn exit_farm_proxy(
farm_address: ManagedAddress,
exit_amount: BigUint,
) -> ExitFarmProxyResultType<Self::Api>

The exitFarmProxy works exactly like its base contract couterpart, except it takes Wrapped Farm tokens as input. This includes the new exit_amount logic, where the user sends his entire position and specifies the actual exit amount as an argument. The output of this endpoint consists of a MultiValue of 3 EsdtTokenPayment, namely the initial_proxy_farming_tokens, the reward_tokens and the remaining_wrapped_tokens, like with the base exitFarm endpoint.

Claim rewards proxy

    pub type ClaimRewardsFarmProxyResultType<M> = MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn claim_rewards_proxy(
farm_address: ManagedAddress,
) -> ClaimRewardsFarmProxyResultType<Self::Api>

As with the exitFarm function, the claimRewardsProxy endpoint works in the exact same way as the base farm claimRewards function, but instead it receives a payment of Wrapped Farm tokens. The output of this endpoint consists of a MultiValue of 2 EsdtTokenPayment, namely the new_wrapped_token and the reward_tokens.

Merge wrapped farm tokens

fn merge_wrapped_farm_tokens_endpoint(&self, farm_address: ManagedAddress) -> EsdtTokenPayment

This function merges two or more positions of Wrapped Farm (farm positions obtained using locked MEX instead of MEX and this intermediary contract). In order to merge two positions of this type, the contract uses merge endpoints for the underlying tokens like Farm tokens, locked MEX tokens, Wrapped LP tokens and so on, and after that, the newly created Wrapped Farm token will just reference the newly created and merged underlying tokens.

Farm Staking SC

This contract allows users to stake their tokens and/or LP tokens and earn rewards. It works in conjunction with the Farm Staking Proxy contract and offers the complete array of utility functions, from entering and exit the contract, to rewards handling and tokens merging.

It is important to note that the following functions are related to the current implementation of the Farm Staking SC, that does not take into account the user's energy. In the future, a new energy-integrated Farm Staking SC will be used.

Stake farm

fn stake_farm_endpoint(&self) -> EsdtTokenPayment

Endpoint that allows an user to stake his tokens (different for each contract) in order to enter the staking farm. It receives the farming_token as a payment and it sends the farm_token back to the caller.

Farm staking claim rewards

    pub type ClaimRewardsResultType<M> = MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn claim_rewards(&self) -> ClaimRewardsResultType<Self::Api>

Endpoint that allows the caller to send his farm staking tokens and to receive the corresponding rewards. The sent farm staking tokens are burnt and new tokens are minted, in order to reset that user's position. The output result of this endpoint consists of a MultiValue of 2 EsdtTokenPayment, namely the new_token and the reward_tokens.

Farm staking compound rewards

fn compound_rewards(&self) -> EsdtTokenPayment

Payable endpoint that allows the caller to harvest the rewards generated by the staking farm and reinvest them seamlessly, within a single endpoint. It burns the current farm tokens and computes the actual position with the rewards included. It returns an EsdtTokenPayment with the new farm staking tokens.

Unstake farm staking

    pub type ExitFarmResultType<M> = MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn unstake_farm(&self) -> ExitFarmResultType<Self::Api>

Endpoint that allows the user to unstake his farm staking tokens. It receives the farm_token as a payment and it sends the unbond_farming_token back to the caller. The farm_tokens are burnt and the unbond_farming_tokens are then minted through the nft_create_tokens function, which encodes the UnbondSftAttributes in the newly created tokens. Also, the calculated rewards, if any, are sent to the caller. The output result of this endpoint consists of a MultiValue of 2 EsdtTokenPayment, namely the new_token and the reward_tokens.

Unbond farm staking

fn unbond_farm(&self) -> EsdtTokenPayment

Endpoint that allows the user to unbond his farming tokens. As previously stated, the unstakeFarm endpoint gives the user unbond_farming_tokens, that have the unbonding period encoded. The unbond function receives the unbond_farming_tokens as a payment and decodes the unbonding period in order to check if the tokens can be unbonded. If the unbonding period has passed, the unbond_farming_tokens are burnt and then the farming_tokens are sent back to the caller.

Merge farm staking tokens

fn merge_farm_tokens_endpoint(&self) -> EsdtTokenPayment<Self::Api>

A payable endpoint that allows the user to merge his farm_staking_tokens. It is also the method that is called by the proxy farm staking contract in order to give the user his combined position. In this case, a MultiESDTTransfer is being send by the proxy contract with the lp_farm_token and the proxy_dual_yield_token. The new lp_farm_tokens are being minted and sent back to the proxy contract, which will then send the new dual_yield_tokens to the user.

Farm Staking Proxy SC

This SC works in conjunction with the Farm Staking contract and offers the configuration means for the dual yield token, that takes care of the staking logic of the farm staking process. As a high level overview, we can underline the following steps:

  • The user follows the usual steps to enter a simple farm: add liquidity + enter farm with the LP tokens
  • He then sends the farming tokens to the farm staking proxy contract
  • The proxy contract calculates the user's position and simulates a transfer on his behalf to the staking contract. By being whitelisted as a trustworthy address, the staking contract accepts the data as a simulated transfer
  • The staking contract calculates the farming token (by quoting the LP contract) and sends the farm staking position to the proxy contract
  • The proxy contract keeps the farming token and sends the dual yield token instead to the user
  • The user can then use the dual yield token to claim his rewards or unstake his position

For this walkthrough we will take a look at the main functions that you will use when implementing the Farm Staking Proxy SC. Again, as with the Farm Staking SC, this walkthrough uses the current implementation of the Farm Staking Proxy SC, that does not take into account the user's energy. When implementing these 2 DEX contracts be sure to check which is the latest version of the contracts.

Stake farm proxy

    pub type StakeResult<Api> = EsdtTokenPayment<Api>;

fn stake_farm_tokens(&self) -> StakeResult<Self::Api>

The first endpoint in the farm staking workflow. It receives the farming_token as a single or as a multiple payment. The endpoint calculates the position for each payment and burns the current dual_yield_token for the corresponding nonce, if there is any. The workflow continues by quoting the LP contract of the correct token amount and then simulates a token transfer with that amount towards the farm staking contract. It will then receive the corresponding farm_staking_token amount (amount that will remain inside the contract) and will send the user the corresponding dual_yield_token. It is important to mention that only the proxy contract can simulate the token transfer, by being whitelisted inside the farm staking contract to do so. This means that any outside attempts to replicate this process will fail in the staking contract. Another aspect that is worth mentioning is that the endpoint will try to merge the user's position. For that, it calls the merging function of the farm staking contract in order to give the user a combined position.

Claim farm staking proxy rewards

    pub type ClaimDualYieldResult<Api> = MultiValueEncoded<Api, EsdtTokenPayment<Api>>;

fn claim_dual_yield(&self) -> ClaimDualYieldResult<Self::Api>

For claiming rewards from the farm staking contract, the user has to send his dual_yield_tokens to the proxy contract as a payment. Based on this payment, the proxy contract identifies the corresponding position for the user and burns those dual yield tokens. It then uses the staking farm tokens to claim the corresponding rewards. In the end, the proxy contract sends those claimed rewards to the user, along with a new, reset position for the dual_yield_tokens. One thing to note here is that between claiming rewards in the farming contract and the staking contract, the balance of the LP token may vary. Because of that, the proxy contract first harvest the rewards from the farming contract with the initial known value and then requotes the LP contract to get the new LP ratio (that may or may not vary). It then harvest rewards with the new value.

Unstake farm staking proxy

    pub type UnstakeResult<Api> = MultiValueEncoded<Api, EsdtTokenPayment<Api>>;

fn unstake_farm_tokens(
pair_first_token_min_amount: BigUint,
pair_second_token_min_amount: BigUint,
exit_amount: BigUint,
) -> UnstakeResult<Self::Api>

To unstake his current position, a user must send the desired amount of dual_yield_tokens to the proxy contract. At this moment, the proxy contract knows, based on the sent dual_yield_token, both the farm_token position and staking_token position. The first step is for the proxy contract to withdraw the LP tokens from the farms and the liquidity from the pair contract. After that all the harvested rewards, the resulting farming_tokens from removing the LP token and the unstake position of the staking token are all sent to the user. The unstaking process is ended with the burning of the dual_yield_tokens. It is important to note that because of the user’s unstaked position, an unbonding period is not needed.

Simple Lock SC

The Simple Lock SC facilitates the locking of tokens, useful for example when launching a new token/product, while also offering the means to unlock or to use them in other xExchange contracts (like the Pair SC or the Farm SC).

Lock tokens

fn lock_tokens_endpoint(
unlock_epoch: u64,
opt_destination: OptionalValue<ManagedAddress>,
) -> EgldOrEsdtTokenPayment<Self::Api>

This endpoint receives any type of token as a payment (including EGLD) and locks them until unlock_epoch, by minting MetaESDT LOCKED tokens on a 1:1 ratio. If unlock epoch has already passed, the original tokens are sent instead. In the end, it sends the LOCKED tokens (or original payment if current_epoch >= unlock_epoch)


  • unlock epoch - the epoch from which the LOCKED token holder may call the unlock endpoint
  • opt_destination - OPTIONAL: destination address for the LOCKED tokens. Default is caller.

Unlock tokens

fn unlock_tokens_endpoint(
opt_destination: OptionalValue<ManagedAddress>,
) -> EgldOrEsdtTokenPayment<Self::Api>

Endpoint that unlocks tokens, previously locked with the lockTokens endpoint, so it receives the LOCKED tokens as the payment. If the unlocking period has passed, the function sends & returns the originally locked tokens.


  • opt_destination - OPTIONAL: destination address for the unlocked tokens

Add liquidity locked tokens

    pub type AddLiquidityThroughProxyResultType<M> =
MultiValue3<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn add_liquidity_locked_token(
first_token_amount_min: BigUint,
second_token_amount_min: BigUint,
) -> AddLiquidityThroughProxyResultType<Self::Api>

As it name suggests, this endpoint allow users to use their locked tokens in order to provide liquidity as if they had the unlocked token. It will fail if a liquidity pool is not configured for the token pair. The endpoint can receive any type of payments pair from the following: (LOCKED token, LOCKED token) / (LOCKED token, any token) / (any token, LOCKED token).


  • first_token_amount_min: forwarded to the LP pool, may not be zero.
  • second_token_amount_min: forwarded to the LP pool, may not be zero.

After the endpoint succesfully provides liquidity in the Pair SC, it returns a MultiValue of 3 EsdtTokenPayment: the refunded tokens from the first payment and from the second payment, as well as the LP_PROXY tokens, which can later be used to further interact with the LP pool through this SC.

Remove liquidity locked tokens

    pub type RemoveLiquidityThroughProxyResultType<M> =
MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn remove_liquidity_locked_token(
first_token_amount_min: BigUint,
second_token_amount_min: BigUint,
) -> RemoveLiquidityThroughProxyResultType<Self::Api>

The counterpart of the add liquidity function, it removes liquidity previously added through this SC. One important aspect here is what kind of tokens will the user receive back. If the unlock_epoch has not passed for the original LOCKED tokens, he caller will receive locked tokens. Otherwise, they will receive the unlocked version. It receives a payment of LP_PROXY tokens.


  • first_token_amount_min: forwarded to the LP pool, may not be zero.
  • second_token_amount_min: forwarded to the LP pool, may not be zero.

In the end, the endpoint sends to the user and returns a MultiValue of 2 EsdtTokenPayment, consisting of the first_token original liquidity and the second_token original liquidity, along with any accumulated rewards for each token (included in the sent amount).

Enter farm locked tokens

    pub enum FarmType {

pub type EnterFarmThroughProxyResultType<M> = MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn enter_farm_locked_token(
farm_type: FarmType,
) -> EnterFarmThroughProxyResultType<Self::Api>

Like with the Pair SC interactions, this endpoint facilitates entering a farm with LOCKED tokens. User will choose if they want to enter a farm with normal rewards, or locked rewards. At this moment, in the case of the xExchange contracts, only farms with locked rewards are applicable. As with the normal farm contract, the user should provide not only the farming token (in our case the LP_PROXY tokens), but also any additional farm positions that he may have, in order to receive any accumulated reward.


  • farm_type - The farm type the user wishes to enter.

The final output is a MultiValue of 2 EsdtTokenPayment, consisting of the FARM_PROXY token, which can later be used to further interact with the specific farm, and any accumulated reward, if any.

Exit farm locked tokens

    pub type ExitFarmThroughProxyResultType<M> = MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn exit_farm_locked_token(
exit_amount: BigUint,
) -> ExitFarmThroughProxyResultType<Self::Api>

Endpoint used to exit a farm previously entered through enterFarmLockedToken, so it receives a single payment consisting of FARM_PROXY tokens. This payment should be the full farm position of the user, in order to also receive all the accumulated rewards.


  • exit_amount - The amount that the user intends to withdraw from the farm

In the end, the function sends and returns a MultiValue of 2 EsdtTokenPayment, consisting of the original farming tokens and the farm reward tokens, if any.

Claim locked tokens farm rewards

    pub type FarmClaimRewardsThroughProxyResultType<M> =
MultiValue2<EsdtTokenPayment<M>, EsdtTokenPayment<M>>;

fn farm_claim_rewards_locked_token(&self) -> FarmClaimRewardsThroughProxyResultType<Self::Api>

Another important public endpoint is farmClaimRewardsLockedToken, which claims the rewards from a previously entered farm. The FARM_PROXY tokens received as a single payment are burned, and new ones are created. This is needed because every farm action changes the farm token nonce, to properly store the new token RPS. Finally, the output payments consist of a new FARM_PROXY token, and the computed farm reward tokens.

Energy Factory SC

Before delving into the Energy Factory SC, it is important to have a clear understanding of the Energy concept on the xExchange. The introduction of the MultiversX DEX brought a new utility token, XMEX, which is the new locked version of the MEX token. XMEX offers users the ability to control the locking period through a lock/unlock mechanism. By locking MEX tokens for a certain period (1, 2, or 4 years), the account accumulates Energy, with the amount of Energy increasing the longer the tokens are locked.

With the accumulated Energy, the account is eligible for various benefits, including collecting fees from swaps and XMEX unlocks, Metabonding rewards, and most significantly, enhanced rewards for Farms and Metastaking. It is this Energy that is integral to the Energy Factory SC and its functionality.

Energy structure

    pub struct Energy<M: ManagedTypeApi> {
amount: BigInt<M>,
last_update_epoch: Epoch,
total_locked_tokens: BigUint<M>,

The Energy refers to a struct that contains necessary data about the locked tokens held by an account, including the last update epoch and the actual computed amount of Energy. This struct is utilized in all the contracts that implement the Energy mechanism, including the Farm SC.

In the farm contract, the rewards claim_progress of the user is saved as a struct that comprises an Energy structure and the last claim week. This enables the contract to keep track of the amount of Energy each user has in each week and the duration of time that has elapsed since their last claim.

Energy factory lock tokens

fn lock_tokens_endpoint(
lock_epochs: Epoch,
opt_destination: OptionalValue<ManagedAddress>,
) -> EsdtTokenPayment

The lockTokens endpoint, as it name implies, locks a whitelisted token until a specified unlock_epoch and receive MetaESDT LOCKED tokens on a 1:1 ratio. Accepted input tokens:

  • base asset token
  • old factory token -> extends all periods to the provided option
  • previously locked token -> extends period to the provided option

As for the arguments, the only one that needs to be sent is the lock_epochs variable, which refers to the number of epochs for which the tokens are locked. The caller may only choose an option from the available ones, options that can be seen by querying getLockOptions. The second argument is the optional opt_destination, which represents the destination address for the LOCKED tokens. In case of a None argument value, the default is the caller, and this will probably be the case for most SC that will be built on top of the DEX contract (in order to have their logic inside the contract). But of course the external contract can still specify another destination.

Energy factory unlock tokens

fn unlock_tokens_endpoint(&self) -> EsdtTokenPayment

The unlockTokens endpoint, as it name suggests, unlocks tokens, previously locked with the lockTokens endpoint. This function works only with unlockable tokens, and it also updates the energy of the user as well. In case the tokens locking period has not passed, they can be unlocked through the unlockEarly endpoint.

Unlock early

fn unlock_early(&self)

Unlocks a locked token, with an unbonding period. This incures a penalty. The longer the remaining locking time, the bigger the penalty. Tokens can be unlocked through another SC after the unbond period has passed. This endpoint updates the user's energy as well.

Reduce lock period

fn reduce_lock_period(&self, new_lock_period: Epoch) -> EsdtTokenPayment

Reduce the locking period of a locked token. This incures a penalty. The longer the reduction, the bigger the penalty. The new_lock_period parameter must be one of the available lock options and is used as the new lock duration of the tokens. The endpoint returns the new_locked_tokens payment, containing the new unlock epoch.

Migrate old locked tokens

fn migrate_old_tokens(&self) -> MultiValueEncoded<EsdtTokenPayment>

With the new MEX economic model, a new locked MEX token was introduced, that benefits from all these new improved features, like the ability to extend the locking period, in order to gain more energy, or the unlockEarly functionality, that allows the user to get the unlock tokens any time he wants, by paying a fee. This endpoint does just that, it receives a PaymentsVec of legacy locked tokens, and returns back the new locked tokens. An important aspect here is that the new locking period is not maintained at a 1:1 parity, but instead a 4x longer locking period is used for the new token. This was introduced in order to avoid users gaming the system, by migrating and immediately unlocking the new locked MEX.

Energy factory merge locked tokens

fn merge_tokens_endpoint(
opt_original_caller: OptionalValue<ManagedAddress>,
) -> EsdtTokenPayment

This endpoint receives a PaymentsVec of locked tokens, which then merges into one locked token payment, and update the user's energy accordingly. As always, the original_caller optional argument should be ignored (as it only accepts values from whitelisted addresses).

Token Unstake SC

The Energy Factory SC is one of the most used SC on the MultiversX Network. In order to keep it as simple as possible, the entire unlock/unbond XMEX logic was designed as a different contract, namely the Token Unstake SC. Besides unbonding tokens, this contract offers the possibility to cancel the unbond process at any time, through a dedicated endpoint.

Claim unlocked tokens

fn claim_unlocked_tokens(&self) -> MultiValueEncoded<EsdtTokenPayment>

This endpoint enables the user to initiate the unbonding process and receive their unlocked tokens. In the background, a record of the tokens that are eligible for unlocking (including the unbonding epoch) is maintained. When the user requests to claim their tokens, the system checks the list and only sends the tokens that are unlockable. However, before the tokens are sent, a penalty fee is applied (fee which is computed based on the lock duration of those newly unlocked tokens).

Cancel unbond

fn cancel_unbond(&self) -> MultiValueEncoded<EsdtTokenPayment>

The purpose of this endpoint is to enable users to cancel the unbonding process without incurring any fees. It is important to note that it is not possible to specify a particular token for which the unbonding process is to be reverted. For example, if a user wants to unbond two locked tokens and the unbonding period has expired only for one of them, they can either claim the unlocked token using the claimUnlockedTokens endpoint before cancelling the unbonding process to receive the second token, or they can use the cancelUnbond endpoint to receive both tokens directly without any penalty.

When a user cancels the unbonding process of a token, the Energy Factory SC calculates the user's energy using the newly regained tokens and updates it accordingly.

Fees Collector SC

The Fees Collector SC plays a critical role in the new Energy mechanism and serves as a central contract that collects and distributes fees. These fees are collected in various tokens, including locked tokens, and they come from both trading and energy removal taxes. As the fee tokens accumulate, they are grouped by weeks to ensure that they are later collected by users once every seven epochs. This was necessary to avoid distributing amounts that are too small.

The collected fees are distributed to users who have locked their MEX tokens and have accumulated energy as a result. The users are entitled to a multitude of benefits, including boosted rewards for Farms & Metastaking and collecting fees gathered from swaps and XMEX unlocks. By gathering and distributing these fees, the Fees Collector SC plays a crucial role in maintaining the new Energy mechanism relevant and ensuring that users are rewarded for their participation.

Fees collector claim rewards

fn claim_rewards(&self) -> PaymentsVec<Self::Api>

The claimRewards endpoint in the Fees Collector SC allows users to claim their weekly rewards for the total energy that they've accumulated. The function calculates the user's rewards using a ClaimProgress struct and a global weekly energy amount, and returns a PaymentsVec that includes all rewarded tokens, including locked MEX tokens. It is important to note that the contract keeps rewards for as long as 4 weeks, so the tokens should be claimed at least once during each interval.

Locked Token Wrapper SC

The Locked Token Wrapper SC is used to distribute locked tokens through a wrapping mechanism, allowing anyone to wrap a token, but only user accounts to unwrap it. However, certain limitations are in place to ensure the security and integrity of the system. Users must first be granted a transfer role to send wrapped tokens, which is restricted to whitelisted addresses to prevent unauthorized users or projects from compromising the ecosystem. The contract is designed to provide a community-facilitating mechanism, particularly for projects building on top of the xExchange. Wrapping and unwrapping the locked token also updates the account's Energy, and this should be taken into account by projects using the contract.

Key aspects:

  • Anyone (user or SC) can wrap a token
  • Only user accounts can unwrap the token (SCs are limited only to wrapping the token)
  • The wrapped token can be sent only by whitelisted addresses
  • Wrapping & unwrapping the locked token also updates the account's Energy

Wrap locked token

fn wrap_locked_token_endpoint(&self) -> EsdtTokenPayment

This function is designed to facilitate the wrapping of locked tokens. When called, the function receives a single payment of locked tokens, which are then deducted from the account's energy. The function then mints a new wrapped locked token and sends it to the caller.

Unwrap locked token

fn unwrap_locked_token_endpoint(&self) -> EsdtTokenPayment

This endpoint is responsible for unwrapping locked tokens that were previously minted using the wrapLockedToken endpoint. Upon calling this endpoint, the contract will burn the wrapped tokens, mint the locked tokens, and add back the correct amount of energy to the user's account. It's worth noting that only user accounts are authorized to call this endpoint, as smart contracts are prohibited from unwrapping tokens for security reasons explained previously.

Closing thoughts and next steps

As you've learned from this walkthrough, integrating DEX contracts can be a complex but essential step in building a decentralized exchange platform. By understanding the key contracts and public endpoints, you can create a platform that is secure, reliable, and user-friendly. As with any development project, it's important to thoroughly test your code and perform due diligence to ensure that your platform is secure and reliable. Additionally, as the blockchain ecosystem is constantly evolving, it's important to stay up-to-date on the latest changes and developments of the DEX contracts in order to ensure that your platform remains competitive and relevant. With the knowledge and skills you've gained from this walkthrough, you are well on your way to building a successful and innovative Web3 application. Good luck with your project!